AMERICAN SLANG WORDS AND PHRASES. (To) ace (v.): To pass a test, exam, etc. really easily. "Robert aced his physics exam." A-Game: One's best self. BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR Will you be free tomorrow evening? /wil iú: bí: The boy´s got a book kaywretinjourbo.gq English Vocabulary in Use (UpPer-intermediate). Unconventional English (), to Jonathan Lighter's Historical Dictionary of American Slang Do not expect to find every single piece of English slang here.
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Dictionary Of American Slang And Colloquial Expressions Pdf previous post Basic English Usage [Oxford] Pdf. next post Pictures Of English. Glossary of American Slang ace (very good). He's an ace reporter. action ( excitement). Where is the action? airhead (stupid person). My brother is a real airhead. Please use care when accessing them. Slang. WORKSHEET A. Exercise 1. The sentences below contain examples of British, American or Australian slang. Can.
After a few weeks of living together, they finally told me that they could barely understand me sometimes.
It turned out that not only my accent, but also my British slang made our communication difficult. Language is always changing, and new words are often added. A lot of the time, these words are slang. Certain areas may have their own slang words that are not used in other areas where the same language is spoken. English learners worldwide tend to be more familiar with American slang, just because American popular culture is so widespread.
American music, Hollywood films and American sitcoms can often be seen in other countries. When British television shows are sold to America, they are often remade to make them more understandable to American audiences. It is no wonder that American English tends to be more understood. So if even native English speakers like Americans find it hard to understand British slang, how can English learners hope to understand it? You may have to look a little harder, but there are plenty of sources out there.
The problem with slang is that it is always changing and there are trends like fashions or styles with clothes. So when you look for slang, it is good to try to find recent examples.
Comedy is always a good place to look, as comedians like to play with words. Dizzee Rascal is a famous British rapper who uses a lot of modern slang in his music. To watch videos of different kinds of spoken English from all over the world, you can check out FluentU.
FluentU takes real-world English videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons. Every video comes with clickable subtitles, flashcards and fun quizzes so you learn new words while you watch. To watch that video and the full FluentU video library with all the learning features, sign up for a free FluentU trial. Because slang is casual language, some of these might not be appropriate for younger learners.
Also, some words that are fine to use in Britain may be considered offensive in other places! We will explain all of that, though.
Have fun learning! Typological description of English neologisms. Typolohichna kharakterystyka anhlomovnykh neolohizmiv.
In Naukovyj visnyk Volyns'koho derzhavnoho universytetu imeni Lesi Ukrayinky Filolohichni nauky , 6, s. Hsia, H. On redundancy. Ivanova, Y.
The American Slang Dictionary
Lexicology and phraseology of modern English. Leksikologiya i frazeologiya sovremennogo anglijskogo yazyka. Jamet, D. A morphophonological approach to clipping in English: Can the study of clipping be formalized? In Lexis special: Lexicology and phonology, 1, p. Katamba, F. English words: Structure, history, usage.
On concatenative and nonconcatenative lexeme-formation patterns in English. In Linguistica Pragensia, 2, p. Klymenko, O. Replenishment of modern English vocabulary from non-standard subsystems. Kharkiv: V. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Popovnennya slovnykovoho skladu suchasnoyi anhlijs'koyi movy z neliteraturnykh pidsystem. Kharkiv: Kharkivs'kyj natsional'nyj universytet imeni V.
Metaphor: A practical introduction. Kreidler, Ch. Creating new words by shortening. In Journal of English linguistics, 13, p. In 10 let JTP. Praha: JTP, p. A study of English abbreviations. Language abbreviations and their interlanguage equivalence.
In Aspekte der Fremdsprachenlinguistik in der Slowakei und in Ungarn. The formation and function of English abbreviations. In Studies in foreign language education, 3. On the sign nature of e-language numeronyms. In Abbreviation tendencies in English and Slovak: Electronic language and onomastics.
The influence of economizing factors of speech on the lexical and phonological structure of linguistic units.
Local etymology; or names of places in the British isles, and in other parts of the world. Williamson, W.
London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans. Carlisle: James Steel. Lyons, J. Introduction to theoretical linguistics. Mattiello, E. Extra-grammatical morphology in English: Abbreviations, blends, reduplicatives, and related phenomena. Berlin-Boston: De Gruyter Mouton. Menzel, K. The diachronic development of combining forms in scientific writing. In Lege artis. Language yesterday, today, tomorrow. DOI: Knowledge foundations for teaching reading and spelling.
In Read write, 22, p. Oberg, D. Grammar and writing skills for the health professional. Boston: Cengage Learning. Pearson, B. Early phonological development in the speech of bilingual-learning infants and toddlers: The interplay of universal and language-specific processes. In Multilingual norms. Cruz-Ferreira, M. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, p.
Plag, I. Word-formation in English. Room, A. An alphabetical guide to the language of name studies. London: Scarecrow Press. Ryfa, J. Englishes of London and the Southeast of England.
In World Englishes. Volume I: The British Isles. Hopkins, T. London: Bloomsbury, p. Salience factors determining natural metonymic clippings illustrated through the medical lexicon. Saussure, F. Course in general linguistics edited and annotated by Roy Harris.
Understanding Casual British: 18 Essential UK Slang Words for English Learners
London-New York: Bloomsbury. Loan translations, or calques, provide another source of home-grown Indian English slang. Alongside the term motherfucker, Indian English also has fatherfucker, brotherfucker, sisterfucker, and daughterfucker and the associated terms fatherfucking, sisterfucking, etc. These are literal translations of expressions in northern Indian languages Hindi, Punjabi, Gujarati, Bihari, etc.
They are of great antiquity, dating from the seventeenth century, and thus older by more than two centuries than the earliest evidence for American English motherfucker. The expression motherfucker in Indian English is partially a loan translation and partially borrowed from English slang, its ubiquity and prominence in the latter being undeniable.
However, examples of father- fucker from Australia Weller The difference is that in other varieties of English these terms are extremely uncommon, having no real currency in day-to-day slang, whereas in Indian English slang the entire suite of terms is more commonly used. The most common of these is sisterfucker, which sometimes appears in literary texts in the bowdlerized form as sister-sleeper e.
Rushdie Blends based on the words Hollywood and English are a productive source of neologism. However, other -ollywoods exist in India. The term Mollywood was originally used to refer to the Tamil film industry based in Madras i.
Chennai, Tamil Nadu , but now more commonly refers to the Malayalam film industry. The Tamil film industry is usually known as Kollywood, from Kodambakkam, a residential suburb of Chennai central to the film industry. The Pakistani film industry based in Lahore has become Lollywood. Tollywood is both the name for the Telegu film industry of Andhra Pradesh, and for the Bengali film industry centred in Tollygunge, Kolkata.
Within India, however, other regional forms exist, all denoting a mixing of English with indigenous languages.
These terms are found in texts on regional variation of Indian English, usually in complaint-tradition discussions of falling standards and language purity. They are used loosely to refer various levels of language contact, including code-mixing, regional accent, borrowings and loan translations.
One final common method of creating new slang in Indian English consists of reduplication with modulation of the initial consonant, as with English super-duper. This feature of Indian English was commented on by Yule and Burnell The tension-venshun that analysts and commentators are suffering on account of the outcome of the forthcoming Gujarat polls has a significance as semantic as it is political. For no matter whichever netas-shetas rule the roast [sic], despite all their talk-shalk, their lafda-gafdas will be much the same.
Direct loans from Indian languages Direct loans from Indian languages, particularly Hindi, are a significant part of the Indian English slang story. Hindi is the official national language, has the greatest numerical strength of all native languages, and is taught to millions of citizens for whom it is not their mother tongue nor even the official language of their state Mehrota The popularity of Bollywood films and songs adds to its ubiquity. Thus, many borrowings are from Hindi, but certainly not all.
Anglotopia’s Top 100 Favorite British Slang Words and Phrases
One set of loan words are the counterparts of the motherfucker, sisterfucker set described above. The terms in Hindi are: This is identical to the dual role that many strong swear words play in English. The commonest terms are betichod and bahinchod, which were conspicuous enough in Anglo-Indian speech to be given an entry in Hobson-Jobson: Banchoot, Beteechoot, ss. Yule and Burnell The Hindi transliterations used here follow the transcription system in McGregor though none of the terms are to be found in that work , yet there is no one system in universal use.
The lack of a widely-used standardized transcription systems for Indian scripts makes for vastly varied orthographical forms. I have uncovered 38 modern forms of bahinchod, some of recorded by the informants as being the Bengali, Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati or Punjabi forms. Examples include baanchod, banchot, bainchoad, bhaynchod, benchaud, benchode, bhenchhod, pahnchod, panchodh and banjord.
Such spellings offer little concrete indication of pronunciation. The situation is extremely complex and how to cope with this is a major difficulty facing any slang lexicographer who wishes to take on Indian English slang in any serious manner. One of the characteristics of borrowed lexis is the transference of some morphological and grammatical information into Indian English slang from the source languages.
The lack of capitals for angrez i is consistent with the fact that Indian scripts do not have capital letters. Yet, Indian English slang also uses of the English words hot and cool in the same slang senses as other varieties of English, and thus the question arises then whether garam and thanda are examples of Hindi loan translations from English or whether the senses arose natively in Hindi.
Perhaps the flow of senses in the Indian English context was two-way. In terms of orthography, borrowings from native languages present challenges especially in the vowels. The popularity of this system owes something to the fact that it does not utilize diacritics, as opposed to the one used by McGregor with macrons indicating long vowels: However, such transliteration is only patchily employed. Amongst the borrowings we find examples of terms that seem to be able to swap between being used as slang and being used as unmarked, everyday language.
Go desi on Independence Day with the latest range of khadi salwar kameezes, kurtas and skirts by Rohit Bal and Malini Ramani[. With a lull having set in after the storm, all is quiet on the desi tinsel town front. Times of India 10 August Yes, the Indians are coming.
And going. And staying in the land of the angrez, and they are making the gora more desi than you can imagine. Times Of India 22 September The Laloo-Rabri duo also has a large number of dogs. Both deshi and videshi, remarked Laloo. Times Of India 20 December In contrast, the contexts of the final two examples are not nearly so informal. Slang words exist on a continuum of formality, but their positions on that continuum is not fixed.
This has long been in English slang or informal language, but for the most part in Indian English guru is used without any sense of informality, keeping company with such reverent words as ashram, sadhu, temple and the like.
Yet, consider the following example: This is exactly the slangy way in which the word is used in other major varieties of English Dalzell and Victor Of unknown derivation is the term pondy.
Richter It has been suggested that this is an extended use of the Tamil word for vagina, pundai, or is related to pondy. Both are plausible, but lack supporting evidence. The suggestion that poondy is connected with American English poontang is also unsubstantiated. This ungrammatical nominalisation of the Hindi imperative dates from the colonial period, where it was in common use in Anglo-Indian English Rao Hindustani imperatives were frequently used as infinitives by the British in India Yule and Burnell Its presence as a part of the slang lexis of other varieties of English is well documented in countless dictionaries.
What has eluded lexicographers to date is the presence of dekko in modern Indian English slang, where it is not uncommon. My earliest record of its use in post-Independence Indian English is Singh That dekko is used as a noun and not an imperative in Indian English slang, indicates that this is not a modern loan from Hindi or a case of contemporary code-switching.The common and distinctive features of diverse types of clipping are identified and systemized. New York-London: Routledge. It has been suggested that this is an extended use of the Tamil word for vagina, pundai, or is related to pondy.
Iyer, V. Kazakhstan, Astana, L.
Yet, Indian English slang also uses of the English words hot and cool in the same slang senses as other varieties of English, and thus the question arises then whether garam and thanda are examples of Hindi loan translations from English or whether the senses arose natively in Hindi. Slang is a very ancient phenomenon, extending back into the history of language almost as far as our records can reach.
Algeo, J. The Oxford companion to the English language. In Lexis special: Lexicology and phonology, 1, p.