PDF | In the present study an attempt has been made by the investigators to study the attitude of secondary school Teachers towards the “Right. PDF | While the broader ambition of the Indian government's Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act () has been. (a) “Act” means the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, providing elementary education in a school, in relaxation of the limits.
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, May, ISSN – (Online) ISSN – (Print) CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE RIGHT TO EDUCATION ACT IMPLEMENTATION IN. An Act to provide for free and compulsory education to all children of the . Education, a child shull Eave a right to seek transfer to any other school, excluding. In providing for the right of every child to free and compulsory education in a neighbourhood school, the RTE Act does not restrict the choice of the child to seek.
The World Bank education specialist for India, Sam Carlson, has observed: The RTE Act is the first legislation in the world that puts the responsibility of ensuring enrolment, attendance and completion on the Government. It is the parents' responsibility to send the children to schools in the US and other countries. A number of other provisions regarding improvement of school infrastructure, teacher-student ratio and faculty are made in the Act.
Implementation and funding[ edit ] Education in the Indian constitution is a concurrent issue and both centre and states can legislate on the issue. The Act lays down specific responsibilities for the centre, state and local bodies for its implementation.
The states have been clamouring that they lack financial capacity to deliver education of appropriate standard in all the schools needed for universal education. A critical development in has been the decision taken in principle to extend the right to education till Class X age 16  and into the preschool age range. The report admits that 8. A shadow report by the RTE Forum, representing the leading education networks in the country led by Ambarish Rai a prominent activist , however, challenging the findings pointing out that several key legal commitments are falling behind the schedule.
Universal adult franchise in the act was opposed since most of the population was illiterate. Article 45 in the Constitution of India was set up as an act: The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.
As that deadline was about to be passed many decades ago, the education minister at the time, M C Chagla , memorably said: Our Constitution fathers did not intend that we just set up hovels, put students there, give untrained teachers, give them bad textbooks, no playgrounds, and say, we have complied with Article 45 and primary education is expanding They meant that real education should be given to our children between the ages of 6 and 14 — M.
Chagla,  In the s, the World Bank funded a number of measures to set up schools within easy reach of rural communities. This effort was consolidated in the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan model in the s. RTE takes the process further, and makes the enrolment of children in schools a state prerogative.
Criticism[ edit ] The act has been criticised for being hastily drafted,  not consulting many groups active in education, not considering the quality of education, infringing on the rights of private and religious minority schools to administer their system, and for excluding children under six years of age.
Several habitations lack schools altogether. There are also frequent allegations of government schools being riddled with absenteeism and mismanagement and of appointments made on political convenience.
Despite the allure of free lunch in the government schools, many parents send their children to private schools. Average schoolteacher salaries in private rural schools in some States about Rs. Children attending the private schools are seen to be at an advantage, forming a discrimination against the weakest sections who are forced to go to government schools.
Furthermore, the system has been criticised as catering to the rural elites who are able to afford school fees in a country where a large number of families live in absolute poverty. The act has been criticised as discriminatory for not addressing these issues. Well-known educationist Anil Sadgopal said of the hurriedly drafted act: It is a fraud on our children.
It gives neither free education nor compulsory education. In fact, it only legitimises the present multi-layered, inferior quality school education system where discrimination shall continue to prevail. They are leaving because the teachers are not showing up.
Chief Justice SH Kapadia and Justice Swatanter Kumar held that providing such reservation is not unconstitutional, but stated that the Act will not be applicable to private minority schools and boarding schools.
However, Justice K. Panicker Radhakrishnan dissented with the majority view and held that the Act cannot apply to both minority and non-minority private schools that do not receive aid from the government.
The third feature of the act was that private and unaided educational institutes will have to reserve 25 percent of the seats for the students belonging to economically weaker section and disadvantaged section of the society in admission to class first and these schools will have to disclosure the list of children taken in this category.
This is a very good initiative as far as removing economic disparities and ensuring equalization of educational opportunities in education is concerned. However there is no clarity on how 25 percent reservation in private schools will be filled or be monitored.
Moreover, the elite schools have their own culture which suits to children of upper class and will the economically disadvantaged students fit in these schools or will become a misfit is a serious question to ponder. The fourth feature of the act is that all schools except government schools are required to be recognized by meeting the specified norms and standards stated by the government within 3 years, failing of which they will be penalized for up to Rs.
It also prohibits all unrecognized schools from practice and makes provisions for no donation or capitation fees and no interview of the child or parent at the time of admission.
Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
This provision was effort in ensuring the quality and standard of schools. However for government schools it is not prescribed in case of failure to adhere to minimum norms for quality mentioned in the schedule.
The Act also does not apply to Madrassas, Pathshalas. So this is bound to affect quality of education in these schools. Implementation of the Right to Education Act The Act states that for the purpose of admission in a school, the age of a child shall be determined on the basis of certificate issued in accordance with the provisions of the Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Act, or on the basis of such other document, as may be prescribed.
The government has provided added guidelines that no child shall be denied admission in a school for lack of age-proof. This is a positive step for encouraging universal enrollment in education. However in this regard, it is important to involve local governing bodies so as to see that all new born babies are enrolled and their record should be sent to the nearby school. All regions of our country may not have schools teaching medium in his mother tongue and this may pose as a problem for the child.
Therefore, it is recommended that a child should not be compelled to learn in his mother tongue but can take up any other language as his medium of learning. Most exams today largely test rote learning and recall instead of conceptual understanding and application.
A study by Ojha has found that teachers are still using the traditional pattern of making students read chapters and then write some questions from the textbook or from the guidebook. Students in all schools use guidebooks suggested by their teachers and these guidebooks have turned out to be reference books for students.
This could be the reason for such low educational competencies among school children and unless this issue is addressed, the quality of school education will not be enhanced. The Right to Education Act prescribes the minimum qualifications of teachers and their academic responsibilities. This is a positive step towards ensuring the quality of education.
With the Act coming into effect, it has been found that there is a shortage of lakh trained teachers in schools. There still exists grave shortage of teachers in schools in almost every state.
Some schools still have one teacher school. This affects the quality of education and results in student drop-outs.
In many states large numbers of teachers are para-teachers and many of them are untrained. In about 35 percent primary schools in Uttar Pradesh, pupil teacher ratio is Fifty one percent primary schools in Uttar Pradesh are having three or less number of teachers.
Out of these, 38 percent are para-teachers Ojha, The act further states that all schools except private unaided schools; are to be managed by school managing committees with 75 percent parents and guardians as members. There is hardly any representation of parent members in the school management board in most schools in our country. This is an issue of concern and efforts should be made to increase parent participation in school management and administration.
The right to education act states that the financial burdens of schools are to be shared by the centre and the state governments in the ratio of and for the north east states.
Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009
In reality, most of the Indian States lack sufficient resources to implement the Right to Education Act. So, the government must make every effort to become self-sufficient by using the education cess and other taxes to effectively implement the RTE Act.
Moreover it has been seen that states like Bihar among others have failed to optimally utilize central funds and have sent back the funds to the government.This could be the reason for such low educational competencies among school children and unless this issue is addressed, the quality of school education will not be enhanced.
In his speech, Dr. Implementation and funding[ edit ] Education in the Indian constitution is a concurrent issue and both centre and states can legislate on the issue.
Hence, it is important that there is an efficient government monitoring system to see that the funds that are allotted by for education are optimally utilized in every school. It was further stated that the School management committee or local authority will identify the dropouts above six years and admit them in class appropriate to their age after special training. Economic and Political Weekly The RTE Act provides for the right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school.
For ensuring proper teacher-pupil ratio in schools, the government needs to recruit teachers on a mass scale and the Ministry of Human Resource Development should ensure that pedagogical training in the form of the in-service and pre-service training, that focus on training teachers on understanding learning outcomes and competency-based assessments.
Panicker Radhakrishnan dissented with the majority view and held that the Act cannot apply to both minority and non-minority private schools that do not receive aid from the government.
It is the 86th amendment in the Indian Constitution.
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