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Abstract: Brazilian geographer Milton Santos is one of the most quoted, celebrated, .. Santos M () Por uma Outra Globalização: Do Pensamento Único à. Por uma outra globalização: Do pensamento único à consciência universal. , from kaywretinjourbo.gq In Rio de Janeiro: uma cidade na história. kaywretinjourbo.gq -memorias-eredefinindo-olhares-Ditadura-militar-e-racismo-no-Rio-de-Janeiro. pdf. Accessed 7 January Santos, Milton. Por uma outra globalização.
This concern has a great tradition in the context oF economics, 82 Mercator, Fortaleza, v. Beyond this trajectory in Economics, we sought to introduce some elements of the theme of technical change from the perspective of Milton Santos, signaling that Geography has contributions to make on the treatment of the issue. As will be seen below, this contribution is most intensive in studies developed by the approach currently known as Evolutionary Economic Geography.
The next section will discuss the approach of the National Innovation System, which has received some prominence among geographic studies on the subject of technological innovation. After various criticisms of this model a new approach emerged in the s, amid the progress of globalization and the precepts of liberalization.
Other models arose to explain the relationship between science, technology and society. Among the models that succeeded the linear approach, here the emphasis is on the National Innovation System. According to the authors, up to the end of the s and the beginning of the following decade the literature about innovation was mainly concerned with the company or industry level.
The interaction between diFerent institutions to promote technological development in the national territory is what characterizes the category of the National Innovation System. The need to address these interactions from a new perspective motivated many authors to propose this new perspective of the innovative process in a context of the increasing importance of innovation for the development of nations.
Numerous institutions focused on the theme were already active in the country; the challenge was how to articulate these actors in order to leverage the potential that a coordinated system could oFer. Government and businesses adopted strategies to strengthen this system, and the more attentive researchers sought to formulate categories that could contribute to the understanding of the phenomenon.
Only taking into account published articles from diFerent areas with innovation as the object of study, the authors reviewed the focus given to the National Innovation System. Among the authors who initiated the discussion about regional innovation systems, Philip Cooke stands out for his ample production since the s. In a study published in partnership with Uranga and Etxebarria 83 Mercator, Fortaleza, v. Geography and Technological Innovation he deals with the institutional and organizational dimensions of regional innovation systems.
The authors address three crucial elements for the development of regional systems: Fnance, productive cultures and learning. In general, go - vernment funding is carried out by national banks; it is unusual to Fnd regional Fnancial institutions able to focus investments on innovation. In addition to the theme of Fnancing, Cooke et al , p. The authors make the following assumptions: 1 that learning is linked to certain institutional structures and 2 that learning requires resources, incentives and skills for individuals or systems to acquire this knowledge.
In this context, the role of governments would be to contribute both to the allocation of these structures and the provision of resources and incentives to encourage continuous learning by companies.
These measures do not only apply to regional governments, but also to national governments concerned with the dis - semination of innovation. Like Cooke et al , Viotti , and makes an analytical contribution re - garding the importance of learning to technological development, especially in countries with a late industrialization, such as Brazil. The author argues that a National System of Learning would be more appropriate for these countries than one of true innovation. To defend this thesis Viotti resorts to a comparison between the development paths taken by South Korea and Brazil.
On the other hand, in Brazil the absorption of technology was more passive in nature, lacking the preoccupation of making learning a path to advance in an autochthonous manner in the Feld of innovation.
This section presented the category of the National Innovation System and its regional varia - tion, the Regional System of Innovation. The Frst two sections have traced a general panorama of studies of innovation, henceforth the focus will be on the perspective speciF - cally adopted by Geography on the theme.
Thus, although the sub - -discipline of Innovation Geography does not receive as much attention from geographers, there are numerous studies that value the technological dimension on territorial impacts. Considering the scarcity of authors and works that self-identify as linked to the Geography of Innovation, the subject will be treated here under another sub-discipline, Evolutionary Economic Geography.
According to Paul Claval , p. More recently, The Geography of Innovation , by Ma - ryann Feldman, is one of the few publications found, so far, that proposes discussing the theme as a sub-discipline of Geography. The same author, in partnership with Nadine Massard, published Institutions and Systems in the Geography of Innovation in The economic perspective on the topic predominates in these works, as is also the case in the works addressed below.
Several authors have defended the evolutionary economic perspective, presented above, con - sidering it fundamental for a more comprehensive understanding of themes such as: the geography of technological progress, dynamic competitive advantages, economic restructuring and economic growth. Recently, based on this approach, several geographers and economists, especially Europe - ans, have initiated a new approach in Evolutionary Geography.
A seminar in is regarded as a milestone in establishing Evolutionary Economic Geography EEG as a distinct and promising paradigm.
In addition, the publication in of the manual The Handbook of Evolutionary Economic Geography, a collection organized by Boschma and Martin, is also a development of the debate started at the seminar, which consolidates several contributions inserted in EEG.
The collection organized by Boschma and Martin , is the principal reference used in this section to examine the theoretical bases of EEG. Furthermore, Garcia also mentions studies related to industrial districts or clusters, and refers to the aforementioned Maryann Feldmann. Evolutionary Economic Geography emerged from this approach with a new theoretical framework, even if the empirical objects have been the subject of previous analyzes, as recognized by Garcia.
Despite the criticism, the economist recognizes the importance of the collection for studies on the territorial impacts associated with technological development.
Geography and Technological Innovation Boschma and Martin , p. In addition, the authors recognize that Evolutionary Economics receives theoretical contributions from a variety of sources, including Biology.
This implies multiple possibilities for EEG, but also risks from inappropriate conceptual migrations, which may lead to the construction of analytical categories that do not contribute to the understanding of the phenomena. The low preoccupation of Evolutionary Economics with space is noteworthy, as it indicates the sizable challenges faced by EEG.
It is in this context that the authors argue that as well as appropriating the concepts of Evolutionary Economics to understand phenomena, EEG should also contribute to revealing the role of space in the processes that lead to the evolution of the economy.
In this way, the role of EEG would be to demonstrate how Geography matters in determining the nature and trajectory of the evolution of the economic system.
The authors advance the analysis of evolutionary theory with contributions from biology; Generalized Darwinism is the clearest inFuence on the formulations they propose. According to Boschma and Martin , p. Complexity Theory focuses on the creation of variety, path-dependence stress the retention of existing information and knowledge, and generalized Darwinism examines how a population of heterogeneous entities evolves through interaction among themselves and with the environment that they help shape.
Although it is popular among evolutionists, geographers and eco - nomists, some caveats must be made in relation to the inFuences of Neo-Darwinism, as cautioned by Martin and Sunley a, p.
The authors report problems in the indiscriminate use of categories developed in Biology in socioeconomic analysis.
Regarding Complexity Theory, Boschma and Martin , p. The approach is rooted in the principles of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, originating from Physics. Unlike Generalized Darwinism, Complexity Theory does not use analogies or metaphors, relying instead on the structuring of processes throughout all the research stages, including socioeconomic ones. Complexity Theory deals with open systems subject to constant interactions with their environments, 86 Mercator, Fortaleza, v.
According to Martin and Sunley a, p. In these works, Krugman advocated the importance of mathematical modeling for understanding the behavior of the economic lands- cape. According to Moraes , p. As the unfolding of the School of Frankfurt in several areas of knowledge is not homogeneous, but something that encompass many different proposals and tendencies, the same happens with the Critical Geography, in which the methodological options accept from Marxists to phenomenologists and eclectics.
Nevertheless, Vesentini is the one who calls the attention for the fact that Santos was present in many important vehicles of communication in the formation of the Brazilian public opinion.
The importance of Milton Santos in the diffusion of the Brazilian geocriticism through media is undeniable. Around him it was created a group with ramifications over all the national territory and also abroad — for example in Argentina which constantly promoted him. This has never happened in the level of reality — in the level of researches, theses and published works — and much less in the conscience of most geographers, specially professors.
But undoubtedly it occurred in the media and, consequently, in the understanding of great part of the public and even professionals of other areas. It is only necessary to evaluate if this identification of the Brazilian geocriticism with the figure of Milton Santos, operated by media, was positive or negative.
It might have been positive as it contributed to amplify the space of geography within the means of the masses communication.
But it might have been negative as it obliterated other speeches, other ways and different alternatives, suggesting an homogeneity in which there has always existed plurality and a rich complexity. Back to the chart, the postmodernism, the last phase or moment, is marked by the postmodern thought. Far away from a singular definition, this moment has several denominations: When an epoch is substituted, it never leaves leftovers on the following one.
The technological era vulgarly known as digital, virtual, informational etc. There is neither interpenetration nor gradual passage, but superposition.
The postmodern paradigm occupied the place of a worn out and disbelieved Marxism , transcended the limits of the structuralism and semiology , gave an interesting response to the new forms of political, aesthetical, science and literature organization. It was the necessary aeration to think the final of the 20th century without the illuminist habits of historic subjects, totalizing visions, programs and projects, art, literarure and acting commitments. At the same time, it integrated the new technologies to the present time discourse, evaluating it sometimes critically, other times enthusiastically.
Thus, among the ones who opted for it there are ex or neomarxists D. Harvey , poststructuralists J. Derrida, J. Lyotard , several critics of the nietzschian tradition G. Vattimo, J. Baudrillard , besides a great number of classical style sociologists M. Maffesoli, G. And, if postmodernism, in fact, did not exist before, here it is dead for the fact.
We can also highlight Edward Soja, who is still little used by communication and who defends the reaffirmation of space in the social critical theory based upon the radical deconstruction spatial of the critical postmodern human geography.
The spatial deconstruction… Must also be sufficiently flexible to receive the reactionary blows of historicism and to avoid the simple defense of the antihistoric , or, even worse, of a new and equally obscuring spatiality.
The argument for the relation between the two areas of knowledge, is: The connection between geography and communication lies on the fact that a all forms of representation occur in the space, and that b all localities are produced by means of representation.
Maps, architectural drawings, as well as the built ambiance, are instances of mediation between the spatial experience, pre visual and material conditions, although rarely defined as such, neither so frequently included in the means of communication, and the studies of communication.
Differently from the thinkers of that period and even after it, Santos believed that, precisely because totality has become empirical, it was possible to theorize more easily. As we experience nowadays, the complexity of hegemonic actors who send their vectors, is differentiated, even more, from the previous moments of capitalism, when few of them were hegemonic. Let alone that in the communicational field, many times the big conglomerates and companies are surpassed by the dynamics of the smaller ones in the distribution of information, products, ideas etc.
More than before, we have the confirmation that hegemony does not need, necessarily, a single source of vector emission. Another question occurs: Another ingredient is added to this, which some geographers use, including the ones who accept the postmodern condition, like David Harvey.
It is the theme of culture related to space. As we live in a global economy, culture tends to be more universal, however as a recreation, since people are fixed in their place and culture is appropriated and reappropriated there. We used to imagine that with the progress brought by modernism, these newspapers would end.
RI_06 Milton Santos - Por uma outra globalização.pdf
Because there are local features that end up being cultural, which demand the existence of a local press. We have already tried it here at USP. And we have to retake this study of the regional geography and the press and media. Because consumption itself leads to its antidote. Consumption makes us captive, but in order to sell, it is necessary to take into account age, income stratifications, the inherited aesthetics.
And the newspaper plays this role, it is the intermediary, it has also a political consumption. Therefore, all this confers a very important role to locality and culture. And why geography? The perception of space is connected to the speed of people, things and messages. The space is distinguished, certainly, through the degree of fluidness among things, objects, messages.
So, we get to this final of century being able to participate in the simultaneous contemporaneousness. The contemporaneousness existed before, but we did not take part in it… this new situation changes the definition of localities: We also have the satellite, which gives us the movement of the Earth. It is like making movies; we accompany the Earth, the world… Totality has become empirical, it is not a creation of our thought.
As Santos analyzes, another question involving media and information, are the limits with their new dimensions and characteristics, namely: Thus, concerning information and media, we should think of recreating a new definition to the limits. Nevertheless, the question should be thought dialectically, because the limit does not lose its materiality.
Santos reminds us that smuggling, as well as duty- free shops are a strong attestation of this , p.
In these spaces, the duty-free shops, two different currencies act in the economy, creating salary, exchange, identity conflicts.
In terms of communication, these spaces generate areas where different languages create different meanings to users, let alone the flux that characterizes the spaces, communicating itself, their ephemerality.
Time plays its role in this relation with space. When the theme related the intellectuals and media, Santos was very critical and suspicious about the role they played. Many times, he called the attention of readers or spectators of programs like Roda Viva, in , when, at a certain moment, perceiving that the interviewers are being repetitive, he reinforces his theses on the role of the intellectual.
The capitulation of intellectuals is an international old phenomenon that has been aggravated by globalization. Somehow it has lasted with the present market democracy. The Brazilian intellectuals are organized into closed groups that need much more to exert pressure to survive than getting together to perform research.
That is why they tend to approximate to the establishment, which reduces the force of their thought, imagination and criticism. This is equivalent to capitulating.
In Brazil, there are exceptions, but this syndrome needs to be urgently healed. Before this fact, some were searching an external recognition, aiming to get a reward beyond the academic environment.
MARIA ADELIA A. DE SOUZA
Concerning the problematic relation with media, in general, he used to state: Today, the press decided to imitate television in order to sell more. The consequence is the necessity to be brief.
So, there are the ones who study and know, and the ones who particularly do not study and speak. The press is frequently the vehicle of light people.
Milton Santos (org.) - Território - Globalização e fragmentação.pdf
People who have the ability to speak easily because what they have to say is simple. Even so, Milton Santos also managed to use media to spread his ideas and concepts. Mainly after he was awarded the Vautrin-Lud international geography prize, in , compared to the Nobel Prize to this area of knowledge and, also, after turning 70 years old, in It is also important to emphasize the theoretical-practical importance, for the studies geocommunicational of the locality.
Each locality, in its manner and possibility, is inserted in the globalization with a greater or smaller amount of technical, scientific and informational contents and densities, and the distinctiveness of the localities will be the qualities and quantities of these cited densities, which relate to one another and, together, compose the panorama of the locality, where one of them neither excludes nor eliminates any of the others.
Technical density: Informational density: It derives, in part, from the technical density. Information is completed with the action. However, when it is univocal, it is an information that obeys the rules of the actor, and introduces a vertical intervention in the space, which generally ignores the surroundings that is set for the service of the one who has the income. The informational density informs us about the degrees of exteriority of the locality.
Communicational density: It comes from what G. Berger used to call human character of action time, since the happening can be considered as intersubjective or transindividual praxis. This plural time of the shared daily living is the conflictive time of the copresence, as the locality of solidary, homologous or complementary happening, the Locality is this banal space of geography… creator of solidarity and obligatory interdependency that is generated by situations of face to face presence… The communicational relations, more than the others, have a Geographic flavor, because they are generated in the locality e only there, although their origin, in case it is distant, from objects, men, and the commands that move them.
The informational relations are vertical and the communicational ones are horizontal. The communicational relations result from the social ambiance… In the present conditions, the informational relations transport the realm of necessity along with them, whereas the communicational relations may identify themselves with the realm of liberty… The opulence of the localities would come not from the technical density, but from the human density.
The daily living is the fifth dimension of the banal space and, among the other four dimensions, three are spatial and the fourth is temporal.It was the necessary aeration to think the final of the 20th century without the illuminist habits of historic subjects, totalizing visions, programs and projects, art, literarure and acting commitments.
Before this fact, some were searching an external recognition, aiming to get a reward beyond the academic environment. Help Center Find new research papers in: Google Scholar Caldard, Roseli S. Cultura Organizacional:
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